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Promotive interaction

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Dependent Variables

  1. (4) Promotive interaction
    "(Barbara Taylor) Promotive interaction, an essential element of cooperative learning - preferably face-to-face - involves students working together where they promote each other's success by sharing resources and helping, supporting, encouraging, and praising each other's learning efforts. (Johnson, Johnson & Holubec, Cooperative Learning in the Classroom, 1994, p. 10)."

Independent Variables

  1. # Reinforcement
    "(Kim) Praise for good or desired behavior/outcomes, and constructive feedback or interventions of undesired behavior/outcomes could promote group interaction/team effectiveness, positive self-efficacy, and motivational practices."
  2. #challenge conclusions & reasoning
    "(John) Challenge each other's conclusions and reasoning: Educ Psychol Rev (2007) 19:15–29 DOI 10.1007/s10648-006-9038-8 "
  3. #common ground
    "(Brian)"Common ground refers to that knowledge which the participants have in commom, and they are aware they have it in common" Olsen & Olsen 2001 page 17"
  4. #Exchange
    "(John) To promote each other's success, group members must exchange needed resources such as information and materials. Educ Psychol Rev (2007) 19:15–29 DOI 10.1007/s10648-006-9038-8 "
  5. #Group processing
    "(Fran)Group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationship. They need to describe what members actions are helpful and unhelpful. JJ&H 11 (KelleyBailey) Group members work together to process through various aspects of the assigned tasks to ensure individual as well as group success."
  6. #trustworthiness
    "(John) Act in trusting and trustworthy ways: Educ Psychol Rev (2007) 19:15–29 DOI 10.1007/s10648-006-9038-8 "
  7. Face to face interaction
    "Face-to-face interaction promotes positive interaction many ways, but especially through visual facial expressions, which shortens retention and reasoning time. (https://sites.google.com/a/pdst.ie/cooperative-learning/5-basic-elements/promotive-interaction) (Barbara)"

Other (Mediating) Variables

  1. #Effective Communication
    "(Brian) The ability to send and receive clear, information, thoughts, and messages through a variety of forms or types as intended. (KelleyBailey) Effective Communication includes an agreed upon method of communication (and possibly a backup method) in order to ensure all members have the opportunity to receive all information."
  2. #feedback
    "Feedback describes the situation when output from (or information about the result of) an event or phenomenon in the past will influence an occurrence or occurrences of the same (i.e. same defined) event / phenomenon (or the continuation / development of the original phenomenon) in the present or future. When an event is part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop, then the event is said to "feed back" into itself. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feedback"
    "(John) Feedback consists of comments and reactions intended to provide useful information that guides future decisions and cognitive development Educ Psychol Rev (2007) 19:15–29 DOI 10.1007/s10648-006-9038-8 "
  3. #Mutual Support
    "(Lea Ann) JJ&H (p.10) note that team members should engage in "helping, supporting, encouraging, and praising each other's efforts.""
  4. #Positive relationships
    "(Fran)Positive Relationships are caused when groups members incite interaction with one another and promote group discussions. When members use inclusive language and ask specific questions of each other then positive relationships and team cohesiveness occurs. http://causal-factors.wikispaces.com/Promotive+Interaction"
  5. #Positive relationships
    "(Fran)Positive Relationships are caused when groups members incite interaction with one another and promote group discussions. When members use inclusive language and ask specific questions of each other then positive relationships and team cohesiveness occurs. http://causal-factors.wikispaces.com/Promotive+Interaction"

Propositions

  1. #Effective Communication positively influences (4) Promotive interaction
    • Because: (Brian) The better the ability of team member to effectively communicate with each other, the greater the positive influence on (4) Promotive Interaction
  2. #common ground positively influences #Effective Communication
    • Because: (Brian) The more common ground team members have, the more effective they are able to communicate. Olsen & Olsen 2001 pg 17
  3. #Group processing positively influences #Effective Communication
    • Because: (Rod) In order for effective communication to occur, the group must be able to provide feedback to one another effectively.
  4. #Positive relationships positively influences (4) Promotive interaction
    • Because: (Rod)If everyone is on friendly terms this will allow more encouragement from among the group. A friend is more likely to be encouraging than a total stranger.
  5. #Mutual Support positively influences (4) Promotive interaction
    • Because: Providing support on an individual level to each group members increases the success of the group.
  6. Face to face interaction positively influences (4) Promotive interaction
  7. #challenge conclusions & reasoning positively influences (4) Promotive interaction
    • Because: Change (cognitive or otherwise) cannot occur unless paradigms are shifted. No learning takes place unless a learner's reasoning is challenged. The challenging of conclusions and reasoning causes learners to thing more deeply about any particular matter. (John)
  8. #trustworthiness positively influences #Positive relationships
    • Because: (John) Trust must be established and maintained in order for positive relationships to be created and flourish.
  9. #Exchange positively influences #Mutual Support
    • Because: The exchange of information and materials is an important aspect of mutual support. Students realize that sharing information and materials promotes the group which promotes themselves. Educ Psychol Rev (2007) 19:15–29 DOI 10.1007/s10648-006-9038-8 (John)
  10. #feedback positively influences (4) Promotive interaction
    • Because: Without feedback no change takes place. Feedback is essential to let each other know what is being done correctly and what is being done incorrectly in order to facilitate each other's efforts to achieve the group's goals. Educ Psychol Rev (2007) 19:15–29 DOI 10.1007/s10648-006-9038-8 (John)
  11. # Reinforcement positively influences #feedback